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Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.

Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.

Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.

There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters.

As Na ions enter the cell, the membrane potential is further depolarized, and more voltage-gated sodium channels are activated.

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These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.Briefly, the model states that the generation of an action potential is determined by two ions: Na and K .The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..

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